中國古代樂器展廳
發布日期:2010-05-18      瀏覽 11851 次

                

                                                    曾侯乙編鐘
      1978年,從湖北隨縣擂鼓墩一號墓出土的曾侯乙編鐘是迄今所見規模最大的編鐘,全套編鐘由64件鐘和1件镈(為楚王所贈)組成,總重量達2,500多公斤。分三層懸掛,上層都掛鈕鐘;中、下層都掛甬鐘。每個鐘都能發雙音,即敲擊其“正鼓部”或“側鼓部”能發出互為大三度或小三度的兩個不同音高。這套編鐘的大部分音區已有完整的十二個半音,總音域達五個八度。各鐘體上的樂律銘文總共有2,800多字,它向世人展示了前所未知的樂律體系,是珍貴的資料。曾國用濁割先聿(B)、割先聿(C)、濁坪皇(#C)、坪皇(D)、濁文王(bE)、文王(E)、濁新鐘(F)、新鐘(#F)、濁獸鐘(G)、獸鐘(bA)、濁穆鐘(A)、穆鐘(bB)等為十二律律名。銘文中還有一套完整的十二音名體系,除了我們今天熟悉的宮(do)、徵(sol)、商(re)、羽(la)、角(mi)外,還有宮甫頁(mi)、徵甫頁(si)、商甫頁(升fa)、羽甫頁(升do)和宮曾(降la)、徵曾(降mi)、商曾(降si)、羽曾(fa)等。學術界稱之為“甫頁曾體系”。

ZENGHOU YI BIANZHONG: COLLECTED BELLS FROM THE TOMB OF YI, MARQUIS ZENG
      The largest collected bells ever found was from the Tomb of Yi, Marquis Zeng (5th century BC) in Sui County, Hubei Province. The set consists of 64 zhong bells and a bo bell (a gift from King Chu), 2,500kg, hung in three layers, the upper for niuzhong (bells vertically suspended), and the middle and the lower for yongzhong (bells hung at a slight angle). On each, two pitches, a major or a minor third apart, can be produced by striking its two different parts, the frontal or the lateral. 12 semi-tones can be heard in most part of the set, with a whole range of 5 octaves. Its valuable inscriptions, over 2,800 Chinese characters in all, unite to form a literature of an unknown temperament system. From the inscription we know that Kingdom Zeng had special names for each of the 12 pitches, and that there existed a complete set of 12 tones, each with its own name, of which we are only familiar with 5, i.e. gong (do), zhi (sol), shang (re), yu (la), and jiao (mi).

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                     錞于
     擊奏體鳴樂器。用青銅制,高30~80厘米。錞于頂上是一個蓋盤,中央鑄有立體的虎、馬、蜼(似猿的動物)、鳳凰等為鈕,可系繩懸于架上敲擊,蓋盤面多鑄有龜、魚等紋飾,有的錞下部周圍鑄有龍紋、山紋等紋飾。
                                  CHUNYU: BRONZ IDIOPHONE
    Striking idiophone. This instrument, 30-80 cm in height, is made of bronze. On its top is a plate-shaped lid, on whose center a tiger, or a horse, or an ape-like animal, or a phoenix, is cast as a ring so as to be hung with a string on a wooden frame for the striking of the instrument. Patterns of tortoise or fish are also cast on its lid, some even with patterns of dragon or mountain on the lower part of the instrument.

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                          銅鼓
      擊奏體鳴樂器。用青銅澆鑄,一般認為由炊具銅釜演變而來。云南省祥云大波那古墓出土的銅鼓晚于前者,是公元前三至四世紀的制品?,F流行于廣西、廣東、云南、貴州、四川、湖南等省的銅鼓大小、款式、紋飾各異,其中廣西出土及民間保存的數量最多。
目前所知最大的銅鼓藏廣西博物館,直徑165厘米,重300多公斤。鼓面鑄有立體小蛙;通體鑄有細密精致的云雷紋,魚人舞蹈圖、競渡圖等。被稱為“世界銅鼓之王”。
銅鼓是古代少數民族統治者權力和財富的象征。除了在祭祀、宴享、傳信、戰陣、婚喪及伴奏歌舞中使用外,也用作賞賜或進貢的物品。
                                      TONGGU: BRONZE DRUM
      Struck idiophone. The entire drum is a bronze cast. It is believed that the instrument came from a kind of bronze cooking pot. A later type was excavated from a tomb in the 3rd or the 4th century BC, in Xiangyun, Yunnan Province. The modern types prevalent in Guangxi, Guangdong, Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan and Hunan provinces vary in their sizes, shapes and decorative patterns. Most are found in Guangxi region from excavations and private collections.
The largest so far, known as “the king of world bronze drums”, is kept in Guangxi Museum, 165 cm in diameter and over 300 kg in weight. On the top surface is cast a small frog; all over the drum are delicate and exquisite patterns of cloud and thunder, of fish-like dancers, and of a boat race.
The instrument symbolized the power and property of the ruling class of minority ethnic groups in antiquity. It was used in sacrificial rites, banquets, communications, battle formations, weddings, funerals, singing and dancing, and as rewards or tributes as well.

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                          古琴(鶴鳴)
      撥奏弦鳴樂器?!鞍艘簟狈诸愔小敖z”的代表樂器。張七根弦。琴的部件都有專門名稱,名家藏琴,其背面多刻有名號和題詞。
常用定弦為C、D、F、G、A、c、d,音域達四個多八度。面板有十三“徽”,通常用貝或金、玉鑲嵌,對稱地排列于整根弦長的1/2,1/3,1/4,1/5,1/6,1/8處,借助徽位,可以彈奏出諸多泛音和按音。
琴的音色古樸典雅,富有韻味。它的低音區音色深沉、蒼勁,中音區音色淳厚、純凈,高音區則清細、明亮,泛音則有晶瑩剔透之感。琴的演奏手法繁復,常用來獨奏或與洞簫合奏。
                                          QIN: SEVEN-STRING ZITHER
      Plucked chordophone. The seven-stringed zither is the silk category in Chinese ba-yin classification. Each part of the instrument has a special name. Celebrated collectors used to carve their names and inscriptions on the rear board. The common tuning of the strings is C-D-F-G-A-c-d, with its range over four octaves. On the front sound board are thirteen hui (studs), commonly inlaid with shells, gold or jade, respectively and symmetrically lined on the positions of 1/2,1/3,1/4,1/5,1/6,1/8 of the string length. By means of the hui on the sound board, various harmonics and stopping tones can be produced. Primitively simple, elegant and full of lingering charms, its tone qualities are variable: deep and vigorous in the low register, pure and mellow in the middle, and bright and delicate in the high. In addition, harmonic tones give listeners a crystal-clear feeling. Sophisticated in playing techniques, the qin is often used for solos or in duets with the vertical dong-xiao flute.

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